Acknowledgements and further information

Chapter 11 of the Natural Grass vs Synthetic Turf Surfaces Study Final Report.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments and thanks to the information supplied by the following organisations:

  • Australian Football League
  • Bowls WA
  • City of Melbourne
  • City of Wyndham
  • Cricket Australia
  • FIFA
  • Football West
  • Hockey Australia
  • Hockey WA
  • Rugby WA
  • Shire of Melton
  • Tennis Australia
  • Tennis West
  • Victorian Department of Planning and Community Development
  • Western Australian Cricket Association
  • Western Australian Football Commission
  • Western Australian Sports Foundation
  • Western Australian Department of Sport and Recreation

Further Information

Sports

Sports dimensions information and diagrams have been sourced from The Government of Western Australia, Department of Sport and Recreation.

Additional references

Hockey WA, 2009.  State Sporting Strategic Facilities Plan 2009-2025, CCS Strategic Management in Association with Geografia

FIH, 2008. International Hockey Federation Pitch Facilities Guide, Hockey Australia, http://www.hockey.org.au/index.php?id=426 (viewed June 2011)

Hockey WA, 2008.  Fact Sheet 4 - Competition Structure

Hockey WA, 2009. Policy 9.18 Junior Turf Allocation

International Hockey Federation, 2011, Rules of Hockey 2011, http://www.fih.ch/files/Sport/Rules/Rulebook%20Outdoor%202011.pdf (viewed June 2011)

State Government Victoria, 2011.  Artificial Grass for Sport, Sport and Recreation Victoria Department of Planning and Community Development, Melbourne, Victoria.

State Government Victoria, 2010. Tennis Facility Planning Guide, Sport and Recreation Victoria, Department of Planning and community Development, Melbourne, Victoria.

Tennis Australia, 2010.  National Court Rebate Scheme Guidelines for Applications, http://www.tennis.com.au/clubs/funding/national-court-rebate-scheme (viewed June 2011)

FIFA, 2009. ‘FIFA Quality Concept for Football Turf’. Federation Internationale de Football Association manual. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/afdeveloping/pitchequip/fqc_football_turf_folder_342.pdf  (viewed June 2011).

FIFA, 2009. ‘FIFA Quality Concept for Football Turf’. Federation Internationale de Football Association manual. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/afdeveloping/pitchequip/fqc_football_turf_folder_342.pdf  (viewed June 2011).

IRB, 2011.  IRB Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical Document - Artificial Rugby Turf Performance Specification , http://www.irbplayerwelfare.com/?documentid=68, (viewed June 2011)

Bowls WA, 2010.  Policy Statement: Greens Self Assessment (Metropolitan Pennants)

Twomey D, Otago L, Saunders N, Schwarz E. Development of standards for the use of artificial turf for Australian football and cricket. Ballarat: University of Ballarat, 2008.

Environmental considerations

Synthetic Turf Council USA, 2011. ‘The Environmental Benefits of Synthetic Turf’, http://www.syntheticturfcouncil.org  ( viewed August 2011)

Simon, R, 2010. ‘Review of the Impacts of Crumb Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications’,  University of California, Berkeley, USA.

TurfGrass Producers International, 2010. ‘Natural Grass and Artificial Turf: Separating Myths and Facts’ published by Turf Grass Resource Centre, www.TurfResourceCenter.org viewed August 2011.

Moretto, Dr R, 2007. ‘Environmental and Health Assessment of the use of Elastomer Granulates (Virgin and from used tyres) as infill in Third Generation Artificial Turf’.  Ademe/Aliapur - Fieldturf - Tarkett Publication.

Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, July 2010. ‘Artificial Turf Study Leachate and Stormwater Characteristics’.  State of Connecticut, USA.

State Government Victoria, 2011.  Artificial Grass for Sport, Sport and Recreation Victoria
Department of Planning and Community Development, Melbourne, Victoria.

Meil, J and Bushi L, 2007.  ‘Estimating the Required Global Warming Offsets to Achieve a Carbon Neutral Synthetic Field Turf System Installation’. Athena Institute, Merrickville, Ontario, Canada.

Townsend-Small, A and Czimczik, C. I, 2010. ‘Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Urban Turf’ University of California (Irvine). Published in: Geophysical Research Letters (USA) Vol 37, 22 January 2010.

Neighbourhood Nursery, 2010. ‘Error in University Turf Study Voids Negative Conclusion About Turf Grass’. http://neighborhoodnursery.com/error-in-university-turf-study-voids-conclusion/ viewed August 2011.

Sahu R, 2008. ‘Technical Assessment of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Managed Turfgrass in the United States.  Research Report, USA.

Huber, C, 2006. A New Turf War - Synthetic Turf in New York City Parks’, Research Department at New Yorkers for Parks, New York, USA.

Target Technologies International Incorporated, 2011. End-of Life solutions for Synthetic Turf: STDF  http://www.ttiionline.com/stdf.htm, viewed July 2011

Twomey D, Otago L, Saunders N, Schwarz E, 2008. ‘Development of Standards for the Use of Artificial Surfaces for Australian Football and Cricket’. University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

Health impacts

Ekstrand J, Nigg B. Surface-related injuries in soccer. Sports Medicine 1989;8:56-62.

Arnason A, Gudmundsson A, Dahl H. Soccer injuries in Iceland. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport 1996;6:40-45.

Stanitski CL, McMaster JH, Ferguson RJ. Synthetic turf and grass: A comparative study. Am J Sports Med 1974;2(1):22-26.

Engebretsen L. Fotballskader og kunstgress. Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening 1987;107(26):2215.

Naunheim R, McGurren M, Standeven J, Fucetola R, Lauryssen C, Deibert E. Does the use of artificial turf contribute to head injuries? The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 2002;53(4):691 - 693.

Scranton PE, Whitesel JP, Powell JW, Dormer SG, Heidt RJ, Losse G, et al. A review of selected noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the National Football League. Foot  & Ankle International 1997;18(12):772 - 776.

Ekstrand J, Timpka T, Hagglund M. Risk of injury in elite football played on artificial turf versus natural grass: a prospective two-cohort study British Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;40(12):975-980.

Fuller CW, Dick RW, Corlette J, Schmalz R. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;41(suppl_1):i27-32.

Fuller CW, Dick RW, Corlette J, Schmalz R. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 1: match injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;41(suppl_1):i20-26.

Steffen K, Andersen TE, Bahr R. Risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass in young female football players. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;41(suppl_1):i33-37.

Bjorneboe J, Bahr R, Andersen T. Risk of injury on third generation artificial turf in Norwegian professional football. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2010;44:794-798.

Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). FIFA Quality Concepts for Football Turf: Handbook of requirements. May 2009 ed, 2009.

Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Fuller C. Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport 2010; In press.

Soligard T, Bahr R, Andersen T. Injury risk on artificial turf and grass in youth tournament football. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport 2010:1-6.

Aoki H, Kohno T, Fujiya H, kato H, Yatabe K, Morikawa T, et al. Incidence of injury among adolescent soccer players: a comparative study of artificial and natural grass. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine 2010;20(1):1-7.

Meyers M. Incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related college football injuries on FieldTurf versus natural turf: A three year prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2010;38(4):687-697.

Fuller C, Clarke l, Molloy M. Risk of injury associated with rugby union played on artificial turf. Journal of Sport Sciences 2010;28(5):563-570.

Laforest S, Robitaille Y, Lesage D, Dorval D. Surface characteristics, equipment height, and the occurrence and severity of playground injuries. Injury Prevention 2001;7(1):35-40.

Twomey D, Otago L, Saunders N. The effects of testing procedure on critical fall height determination for third-generation synthetic turf. Sports Engineering 2011;13(3):145-151.

Theobald P, Whitelegg L, Nokes L, Jones M. The predicted risk of head injury from fall related impacts on to third-generation artificial turf and grass soccer surfaces: a comparative biomechanical analysis. Sports Biomechanics 2010;9(1):29-37.

Devitt D, Young M, Bird  B, Baghzouz M. Surface temperature, heat loading and spectral reflectance of artificial turfgrass. Journal of Turfgrass and Sports Surface Science 2007;83:68-82.

Aoki T. Current state and perspective for artificial turf as sport environment ・ Focusing on Third-generation Artificial Turf as Football Playing Surface. Retrieved from http://libir-bw.bss.ac.jp/jspui/handle/10693/161 June 27, 2011, 2005.

McNitt AS. Synthetic turf in the USA - Trends and issues. International Turfgrass Society 2005;10:27-33.

Buskirk ER, Loomis JL, McLaughlin ER. Microclimate over artificial turf. Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation 1971;42(9):29-30.

Kandelin W, Krahenbuhl G, Schacht G, Schacht C. Athletic field microclimates and heat stress. Journal of Safety Research 1976;8:106-111.

Williams C, Pulley G. Surface Heat Studies, Brigham Young University. http:aces.nmsu.edu/programs/turf/documents/brigham-young-study.pdf, 2009.

Aoki T, Matsuda T, Toyoda K. Sport environments for children-Focusing on surface layer temperature of artificial turf. Bulletin of Biwako Seikei Sport College 2005;2:93-98.

Aoki T. Outdoor sports surfaces made from organic polymer were hot. Training Journal 2005;312:38-39.

Twomey D, Otago L, Saunders N, Schwarz E. Development of standards for the use of artificial turf for Australian football and cricket. Ballarat: University of Ballarat, 2008.Other

Other

Design Standards for Urban Infrastructure 24 Sportsground Designs www.tams.act.gov.au

Natural Grass Maintenance, Handreck, K. A. and Black, N. D. (2001) Growing Media for Ornamental Plants and Turf, 3rd Edition, NSW University Press, Kensington, Australia 2001

Disclaimer

The information in this guide was published in 2011 and cannot be relied upon as professional advice concerning the decision as to natural grass v synthetic turf. No assurance is given as to the accuracy of any information contained in this guide and readers should seek more up to date information prior to making a decision. Readers should obtain their own independent and professional advice in relation to their project.